- 1 Who PPH statistics?
- 2 What is PPH risk?
- 3 What is primary PPH?
- 4 What causes PPH?
- 5 What is the most common cause of PPH?
- 6 Who PPH protocol?
- 7 Can macrosomia cause PPH?
- 8 What increases risk of PPH?
- 9 Can you have another baby after PPH?
- 10 How do you manage primary PPH?
- 11 How many types of PPH are there?
- 12 What are the 4 T’s of PPH?
- 13 What are 3 types of hemorrhage?
- 14 How do you diagnose PPH?
- 15 How do I know if my uterus has gone back to normal?
Who PPH statistics?
Every year about 14 million women around the world suffer from PPH. 3 The risk of maternal mortality from haemorrhage is 1 in 1 000 deliveries in developing countries (100 per 100 000 live births). 4 However, recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of PPH in developed countries as well.
What is PPH risk?
The risk factors for PPH were the use of ART, PIH, severe vaginal/perineal lacerations and having a macrosomic baby. The incidence of PPH in this study was higher than that reported previously. Sosa et al. reported that 10.8% of woman lost more than 500 ml and 1.9% lost greater than 1,000 ml .
What is primary PPH?
Primary postpartum haemorrhage ( PPH ) is loss of blood estimated to be >500 ml, from the genital tract, within 24 hours of delivery (the most common obstetric haemorrhage): Minor PPH is estimated blood loss of up to 1000 mls. Major PPH is any estimated blood loss over 1000 mls.
What causes PPH?
Uterine atony. This is the most common cause of PPH. It happens when the muscles in your uterus don’t contract (tighten) well after birth. Uterine contractions after birth help stop bleeding from the place in the uterus where the placenta breaks away.
What is the most common cause of PPH?
Uterine atony is the most common cause of postpartum hemorrhage.
Who PPH protocol?
Women with clinically diagnosed PPH were randomly assigned to receive either 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid or matching placebo, in addition to usual care. If bleeding continued after 30 minutes, or stopped and restarted within 24 hours of the first dose, a second dose was used.
Can macrosomia cause PPH?
Maternal outcomes of fetal macrosomia The increased risk of PPH in this group may be due to perineal tears and prolonged labor resulting in uterine atony . Moreover, uterine rupture occurred in two mothers delivering macrosomic infants and therefore been a cause of PPH in our study.
What increases risk of PPH?
Conditions that are generally recognised to increase the risks of PPH include: Overdistended uterus. Excessive enlargement of the uterus due to polyhydramnios or a large baby, especially with a birthweight over 4,000 grams. Placental abruption.
Can you have another baby after PPH?
Most women who both had and hadn’t had a postpartum hemorrhage went on to get pregnant a second time, an average of five years later. Those women also had a similar risk of miscarriage and other pregnancy complications, according to findings published in the obstetrics and gynecology journal BJOG.
How do you manage primary PPH?
Procedures used in PPH management include manual removal of the placenta, manual removal of clots, uterine balloon tamponade, and uterine artery embolization. Laceration repair is indicated when PPH is a result of genital tract trauma.
How many types of PPH are there?
Postpartum hemorrhage can be divided into 2 types: early postpartum hemorrhage, which occurs within 24 hours of delivery, and late postpartum hemorrhage, which occurs 24 hours to 6 weeks after delivery. Most cases of postpartum hemorrhage, greater than 99%, are early postpartum hemorrhage.
What are the 4 T’s of PPH?
As a way of remembering the causes of PPH, several sources have suggested using the “ 4 T ‘ s” as a mnemonic: tone, tissue, trauma, and thrombosis.
What are 3 types of hemorrhage?
- Class I Hemorrhage involves up to 15% of blood volume.
- Class II Hemorrhage involves 15-30% of total blood volume.
- Class III Hemorrhage involves loss of 30-40% of circulating blood volume.
- Class IV Hemorrhage involves loss of >40% of circulating blood volume.
How do you diagnose PPH?
Tests used to diagnose postpartum hemorrhage may include:
- Estimation of blood loss (this may be done by counting the number of saturated pads, or by weighing of packs and sponges used to absorb blood; 1 milliliter of blood weighs approximately one gram)
- Pulse rate and blood pressure measurement.
How do I know if my uterus has gone back to normal?
You may feel cramps, known as afterpains, as this happens. For the first couple of days after giving birth, you’ll be able to feel the top of your uterus near your belly button. In a week, your uterus will be half the size it was just after you gave birth. After two weeks, it will be back inside your pelvis.